Jobs in times of change are hard to come by and overly fragile

2022-05-14 0 By

In 1929, the small Austrian village of Marintal, once famous for its manufacturing boom during the Austro-Hungarian Empire, welcomed a newlywed couple: social psychologists Paul Ratchasfeld and Marie Ihoda.Located about 20 kilometers southeast of Vienna, Marinthal was once home to the largest textile factory in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and was home to a workers’ library, a radio club, a drama club, a rabbit-breeders’ association, a football club and other cultural and sports societies.But by the 1920s, Marintal’s textile mills were in complete decline, and most residents were subsisting on meagre unemployment benefits.Lazarsfeld and Hoda, members of Austria’s Social Democratic Party, went to Marintal to investigate, hoping to witness and document the revolution of the unemployed.Them together with the method of scholars such as companion, marin tal 478 villages are compiled the depth of the family and their daily activity records, included the list of members of the community of various genres and statistical grocery store receipt, butcher, monitoring the newspaper subscription and the library’s situation, also armed with a stopwatch staking out behind a tree, record the pedestrian pace when crossing the street.In addition, investigators also carried out in-depth interviews in residents’ homes, and asked underage students to write essays about “what I want most” and “what kind of person I want to be.”Months later, the investigators were stunned.The people of Marintal did not start a revolution, as they had expected, but simply resigned.Local parks have fallen into disrepair, sports clubs have broken up and children are at a loss.”In Marintal, unemployment has become ‘work’ itself,” says Ellen Lapper Schell, a political writer and senior editor and contributor to The Atlantic in her book Work: The Present, Challenges, and Future in a Time of Change.Instead of revolution, the people resigned themselves to “bitter mutual confrontation…They are isolated and bitter and pessimistic.People spy on each other, don’t see who is better than their own family, and can easily report each other, especially those in their family who are identified as “cheating” will be quickly reported by neighbors and old friends.The locals used to keep dogs as their best friends, but in times of economic distress, they have killed each other’s neighbors’ and friends’ dogs — the locals said their dogs had gone missing and “must have been eaten, and he didn’t bother to find out who it was.”More strikingly, locals have abandoned their sense of time altogether: “They don’t wear watches anymore, they’re often late for meals.They slow down, sometimes to a crawl.When asked where they went and what they did during the day, many couldn’t remember.Investigators were shocked, because case of irbid, actually shows a common reality in modern society, that is when people into unemployment and difficult to get rid of the situation, neither fought like left-wing scholars think, also won’t like powerful apologist said “no matter production, enjoy leisure”, but completely destroy the morale, the soul is pumped to the aura.Urban communities as well as rural villages, once in this state, are likely to accelerate into decay.Ironically, this malaise only disappeared a few years later, when Hitler’s Nazi Germany annexed Austria like a bandit and redesignated parts of Austria, including Marintal, as productive areas, putting locals back to work.Work: The Current Situation, Challenges and Future in an Era of Change by Ellen Rapper Schell”Work: The Present, The Challenges, and the Future in an Age of Change” begins with Marenthal’s story, which aims to illustrate the vital importance of work to modern people and the dangers of losing a job, especially the hope of ever working again.Conditions similar to those marintal experienced in 1929 are now repeated in many parts of the world, including but not limited to the erosion of existing industries and jobs caused by “machine replacement”.There is also an age crisis.As populations in industrialized countries and parts of the developing world age, demographers and economists are stressing the importance of delaying retirement to free up labor to boost economic growth.Yet in many industries, in Both China and America, mandatory retirements are starting much earlier, at 50, 45 and reportedly as early as 35.Many people continue to work and learn to make sure that they don’t have what’s called a skills gap, that they don’t have any performance issues, that they’re great collaborators, and yet they’re marginalized, or even thrown out of the company, and never find a comparable job in the industry again.The job:Change the present situation of the era, challenges and future “, points out that a lot of books, articles from the media guide people will be the company eliminated understanding for its own existence question, this is not fair – in fact, this is because the related industry itself into a dangerous rhythm, which is continuously introducing young men, and then out of existing staff, without any reasonForcing the latter to finally accept their own defeat.Another example is that employers are becoming more freewheeling.Work: change the present situation of the era, challenges and future pointed out in the book, unit of choose and employ persons sometimes require employees to achieve some fit the criteria, such as like an activity, have a common values, etc., it seems reasonable, but actually job seekers is about all kinds of rigid type, forcing it into accord with the boss the preset standards and requirements.As a matter of fact, companies, especially innovative companies, have a single standard for employees. It is impossible for “different people” to point out the wrong ideas of the boss and the wrong decisions of the company, and no talented people to bring creative surprises to the company.This arbitrary, a lot of time is unreasonable arbitrary.For example, a mature, confident, career-driven male or female candidate is likely to be appreciated by some employers and believed to be competent in various management positions.But if you really want to be critical, it can also be considered aggressive, not good for teamwork, character flaws.Moderate candidates, for example, are perceived as not aggressive enough — but if they appear to be dynamic, they are perceived as divisive…In the end, it’s because employers, especially bosses and HR, are more capricious because of the massive erosion of jobs in the post-industrial era.This kind of change causes job seeker to be at a loss what to do, self-confidence is eroded seriously, to please unit of choose and employ persons, can give oneself individual right and space ceaselessly only, more overwork, more do not care about duty field unfair, bear bully bully.Do high skills lead to good jobs?Sociologists often refer to skill differences when explaining income disparities in countries such as the United States.In one sense, this argument makes sense: the income divergence since the 1980s has indeed been linked to the rise of some members of the tech start-up community into the new rich.But in the second decade of the 21st century, the idea that tech credentials and skills bring financial returns is becoming less and less tenable. As mentioned earlier, the age line at which workers are eliminated in many industries, including high-tech, has moved higher and higher, creating a so-called young retiree.In fact, the book argues, there is a certain degree of truth to the fact that high skills lead to good jobs, not technical skills, but “critical thinking, logical thinking and reasoning.”, the easiest way to get these analytical skills who has the resources to get the experience in training, to be able to understand the rules of how to produce, and how to modify, to know under what circumstances must abide by the rules, what circumstance can break – “rich people have more opportunities to jump out of the urgent need to think about problems of everyday life”.Therefore, the true meaning of this era is that the rich largely have a “life without limits”, with more opportunities for trial and error, and with the ability and thinking training provided by their living environment, they have a higher probability of finding the right path.For others, the opportunity for trial and error is relatively limited.This could explain why so many people seem to have a good starting point, only to have their job opportunities disappear and become trapped in life.From the 1980 s to 2022, the United States, Europe, Japan has an economist and sociologist difficult to explain the phenomenon, that is in addition to the high-tech industry, financial industry, most other industry pay levels remained stable for many years, not because of labor supply and demand, the level of economic growth and industry climate index and change.To put it bluntly, everything goes up, but wages don’t go up.This is because, in general, industries have become less difficult to work in, so employers can afford to offer and insist on subpar terms when the overall supply of Labour is greater than demand.This situation is exacerbated by the advent of the “machine replacement” era.”Our ability to create more efficient machines to reduce the market demand for human labor is almost limitless;”Our ability to use digital technology to reduce the market demand for human thinking is unparalleled.”Since the 20th century, an important driving force of economic and social development has been to become more specialized and lean.That’s why, in 1929, there was no way for the people of Marintal to find other work or take up farm work to support themselves — could an industrial town, with so many workers, live off the land?According to Work: The Present, Challenges, and Future in a Time of Change, many artists in European and American orchestras and dance troupes were wiped out by market shifts in the 1990s and early 2000s.Here is a historical background.It could be coincidence, it could be design.In the era when the Former Soviet Union existed, European countries and the United States also invested considerable amounts in the cultural industry, which to a considerable extent showed the competitiveness of the European and American systems in the cultural field compared with the Soviet system.Artists in orchestras and dance companies do not necessarily need to rely on the market to make a relatively comfortable living.There are certainly people who muddle through, but many more are leleaners who immerse themselves in their profession and hone their skills.But after the 1980s, neoliberal policies emphasized the withdrawal of the state from the social sphere, especially after the collapse of the Former Soviet Union, and such investment and policy support disappeared and had to rely closely on the market.This has also resulted in a significant number of artists having their careers terminated prematurely.It is suggested that artists who have lost their market space can change their identity and rekindle their passion to create space again.This is an insane suggestion.According to Work: The Present, Challenges, and Future in a Time of Great Change, practitioners in many fields are being asked to specialize in a niche to achieve excellence.This can lead to temporary success, but the danger is that when the market disappears, jobs move, you won’t even get a chance to say goodbye, your past great skills don’t fit in, and your specialization becomes a disadvantage.